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While of critical importance to the historian, methods of determining chronology are used in most disciplines of science, especially astronomy, geology, paleontology and archaeology.
In the absence of written history, with its chronicles and king lists, late 19th century archaeologists found that they could develop relative chronologies based on pottery techniques and styles.
By synchronizing an event it becomes possible to relate it to the current time and to compare the event to other events.
Among historians, a typical need to is to synchronize the reigns of kings and leaders in order to relate the history of one country or region to that of another. D.) is one of the major works of historical synchronism. The first contains narrative chronicles of nine different kingdoms: Chaldean, Assyrian, Median, Lydian, Persian, Hebrew, Greek, Peloponnesian, Asian, and Roman.
Dendrochronology estimates the age of trees by correlation of the various growth rings in their wood to known year-by-year reference sequences in the region to reflect year-to-year climatic variation.
Dendrochronology is used in turn as a calibration reference for radiocarbon dating curves.
Some cultures have retained the name applied to them in reference to characteristic forms, for lack of an idea of what they called themselves: "The Beaker People" in northern Europe during the 3rd millennium BCE, for example.
It is also "the determination of the actual temporal sequence of past events".
Chronology is the science of locating historical events in time.
(AD 1 = AUC 754.) Dionysius Exiguus’ Anno Domini era (which contains only calendar years AD) was extended by Bede to the complete Christian era (which contains, in addition all calendar years BC, but no year zero).
Ten centuries after Bede, the French astronomers Philippe de la Hire (in the year 1702) and Jacques Cassini (in the year 1740), purely to simplify certain calculations, put the Julian Dating System (proposed in the year 1583 by Joseph Scaliger) and with it an astronomical era into use, which contains a leap year zero, which precedes the year 1 (AD).
The second part is a long table synchronizing the events from each of the nine kingdoms in parallel columns.