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A pontil rod held the nearly molten bottle during the final stages of manufacture.
The lettering “Federal Law Forbids Sale or Reuse of This Bottle” indicates a liquor bottle made from 1935 to the 1960s. Having written extensively on North American archaeology and material culture, he has contributed to various archaeological journals and publications.Some technological changes were expensive and not adopted by glass makers until it became an "adapt or perish" issue and many glass factories just perished.The shift to the fully automated bottle machine from mouth-blown and some semi-automatic methods in the early 20th century is the classic example (Toulouse 1967, 1969a). The same bottle could have been recycled and reused many times for many years before finally being discarded - entire or broken (Busch 1987).Dating antique bottles requires knowledge of the evolution of bottle technology and the ability to research manufacturers and bottling companies.
Although glass bottles have been made for a few thousand years, it was not until the 19th century that bottle use became common, coinciding with the industrial revolution. The earliest bottles were hand-blown by a glassblower with a blowpipe and lack seams.But any technique, once developed, can be used right up to the present - as many collectors know who have been so unfortunate as to rely too heavily on a popular termination date as sure evidence of true antiquity..." (Toulouse 1969b).