Obsidian hydration dating archaeology updating kernel in linux mint
In case of measuring the hydration rim using the depth profiling ability of the secondary ion mass spectrometry technique, the sample is mounted on a holder without any preparation or cutting. There are two general SIMS modes: static mode and dynamic mode, depending on the primary ion current density, and three different types of mass spectrometers: magnetic sector, quadrupole and time-of-flight (TOF).
Any mass-spectrometer can work in static mode (very low ion current, a top mono-atomic layer analysis), and dynamic mode (a high ion current density, in-depth analysis).
as a result of radiocarbon dating of associated materials).
This latest advance, the novel secondary ion mass spectrometry–surface saturation (SIMS-SS), thus, involves modelling the hydrogen concentration profile of the surface versus depth, whereas the age determination is reached via equations describing the diffusion process, while topographical effects have been confirmed and monitored through atomic force microscopy.
In fact, the saturation layer on the surface forms up to a certain depth depending on factors that include the kinetics of the diffusion mechanism for the water molecules, the specific chemical structure of obsidian, as well as the external conditions affecting diffusion (temperature, relative humidity, and pressure).